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History of porcelain

Porcelain is called a very delicate and translucent pottery, invented in China in the ninth century. For many centuries, the Chinese developed the technique of decorating porcelain. Changes and improvements were introduced in different periods, during the reign of successive dynasties. In 1280 during the Sung dynasty, most of Chinese ceramics was stoneware or pottery products. After 1368 during the reign of the first emperor of Ming dynasty developed production of porcelain with translucent blue or red scenery.

At the end of the seventeenth century all of European lovers of ceramic were seeking after a secret production of porcelain. European producers of faience tried to imitate oriental designs of China and Japan in their articles, but two difficulties were found to be no to overcome. It did not managed to perform so-thin-walled vessels, thus resistant to heat, as the Chinese, and not managed to copy a beautifully made Chinese decorations. It was not until around 1700 when the French Manufacture in Saint Cloud began producing the so-called soft porcelain, artificial, created from ceramic mass after burnout of argil with frit, that is powdered glass. The search continued.

In 1709, in Dresden, Johann Friedrich Böttger, alchemist, invented the process of porcelain production. Still in need of money August II hired Johann Friedrich Böttger, whose secret mission was the discovery of gold production. Böttger began to work very intensively, but instead of gold, he invented the mass porcelain. And so began the history of porcelain production in Europe.

In 1710 August II moved the faience factory from Dresden to Meissen and opened the first porcelain manufacture in Europe.

The most well-known in the eighteenth century manufactories were: manufactory in Vienna, in Berlin, in Sevres near Paris, in Chelsea, Derby (England), in Copenhagen and in Herent (Hungary).

In Poland in the second half of the eighteenth century, during the reign of King John III Sobieski, there were already faience manufactory in Glińsk and Żółkwia and faience Radziwił manufactory, but none of these establishments was able to part in porcelain production. The king Stanisław August Poniatowski has taken attempts to produce porcelain in Belweder. In response to the needs of the king in 1783, the prince Joseph Czartoryski signed a contract with the future director of manufactory Franciszek Mezer and they set the first porcelain Manufactory in Korc. In 1790 this factory triumphed and produced the first batch of Polish porcelain.

Mezer’s brother - Michael, knowing the secrets of porcelain manufactory and precincts of Wołyń where was the largest deposit of kaolin, in 1803, he founded the faience and porcelain factory in Baranówka.



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